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                建立農民穩定增收的長效機制

                2019-7-8 15:50| 發布者: 易貝羽 |來自: 四川黨的建設

                放大 縮小

                中國社會科學院農村發展研究所所長、研究員 魏后凱

                2017年提出鄉村振興戰略以來,中央對鄉村振興已經作出了全面的安排部署。總目標是農業農村現代化,總方針是堅持農業農村優先發展,總要求是產業興旺、生態宜居、鄉風文明、治理有效、生活富裕。這20個字的總要求當中,生活富裕是鄉村振興的落腳點。而生活富裕的關鍵,核心就是農民增收。

                實施鄉村振興戰略的必要性

                實際上,自2010年以來,我們農民人均可支配收入的增長速度要高于城鎮居民。這說明,這幾年來我們中央采取的強農支農富農的政策取得了較大的成效。但我們也應該看到,農民收入增長的速度在逐漸回落,且我們農民收入增長的速度與高于城鎮居民的速度是越來越小。這些年來,中央政府把“三農”工作作為全黨工作的重中之重,逐步加大力度,但是農民增收的難度越來越大,原因在哪兒?我認為有以下幾方面的原因。

                第一,中國經濟進入了新常態,經濟增長速度不斷回落,城鎮化也在減速,農業勞動力轉移的速度在放慢。到目前為止,滯留在農業農村的人口還是太多。2017年農業勞動就業的比重高達27%,且農民普遍存在兼業化,小規模的兼業農戶占絕大多數,農村缺乏堅實的產業支撐。加之農村大量的資源沒有被激活,農村改革嚴重滯后,雖然這幾年來農民的收入增長速度快于城鎮,但絕對差還在不斷擴大,相對差距、城鄉收入比至今維持在一個較高的水平。這也反映出農民增收的難度是越來越大。在此背景下,要實現鄉村振興,全面實現農業農村現代化,農民增收是短板中的短板。

                第二,更重要的是現在農民增收的模式,總體來看是一種外源性的,并非是來源于農業農村的內生型的。首先是農民這些年來增收主要依賴于工資性收入和轉移凈收入的增長,也就是說農民收入的增加不是主要靠農業農村,而是靠農業農村之外的城市產業的支撐。這樣帶來了一個結果,農民收入增加了,鄉村可能衰敗了,這一點是我們中央要實施鄉村振興戰略很重要的原因。其次是我們的經營凈收入在農民收入構成中急速下降,而家庭凈收入的下降主要是由于農業增比的下降引起的。2014年到2016年,經營凈收入對農民的奉獻不到15%,我們農民增收不靠農業,不靠農村,跟農業農村的關系是越來越小。再者是農民人均財產凈收入增速雖然很快,但是由于占比較低,變化不大,貢獻不大。加上轉移性收入的天花板效應,2014年到2018年轉移凈收入對農民增收的貢獻已經達到了24.5%,已在逐步地接近天花板。同時,農村居民的收入分化在不斷加劇,實際上從總體情況看,高收入戶增長很快,低收入戶增長速度很緩慢,甚至出現了下降的趨勢。這種情況直到2018年才有一定改變。

                從這兩個方面來看,現行的農民增收模式是不可持續的。這種建立在農業農村之外,或者依靠城市產業支撐的城市導向型的農民增收模式,難以持續。這是導致農業衰落、農村凋敝的農民增收模式。所以中央提出鄉村振興戰略是很有必要的,只有依靠鄉村振興,才有可能實現可持續的增收模式,由過去城市導向型向農業農村導向型轉變。

                建立內生型農民增收模式

                農民增收的來源最根本的原則,應該是來源于農業,來源于農村,而不是農業農村之外的城市產業支撐。未來農民增收總的思路,就是要在進一步減少農民的基礎上,通過農村產業的振興和資源的激活,更多依靠農業農村逐步建立一個可持續的農業農村導向型的農民增收模式。

                第一,要進一步大規模地減少農民。2014年開始,農業就業的比重已經由過去的加速下降變成減速下降,進入一個重要的轉型時期,城鎮化也在減速。從未來發展的眼光看,相對于農業增加值,農業就業的比重仍然在一個較高的水平,農業勞動力轉移仍有很大的空間。這里面的關鍵是使大量的兼業化的小農戶愿意、而且順利地轉移出去。要建立進城落戶農民承包地經營權、宅基地使用權和集體收益分配權自愿有償退出機制,通過制度改革來實現規模化的專業化生產,推動農業勞動力迅速轉移。

                第二,要激活資源,拓寬農民的財產性收入。從城鎮化的趨勢來看,城鎮化現在已經在減速,未來的城鎮化主要靠提高城鎮化質量。所以一定要按照中央的要求,通過全面深化農村的改革,打通資源變資本,資本變財富的渠道,來激活我們的資源,來拓寬我們農民財產性收入的來源。這種全面的深化改革,包括土地改革,產權改革,企業的組織的改革等。其核心點就是要堅持市場化的改革方向,要讓市場在資源配置中發揮決定性的作用。我們不能因為農業是優質產業,就動搖了市場在資源配置當中發揮決定性作用的方向。在農業農村領域,同樣需要發揮市場在資源配置當中的作用。

                第三,要建立各具特色,具有競爭力的現代鄉村產業體系。一方面,我們有轉變生產方式的能力,有發展現代高效的能力,關鍵就是要降本提質增效,轉變我們的農業生產方式,推動我們的農業規模化、集約化、綠色化、工業化、社會化,進而推進我們農業現代化。另一方面,一定要將小農戶引入到現代農業發展體系里面,要以農業為基礎,推動農村一二三產業融合。當然這指三個方面,第一我們怎么挖掘農業的功能,推動我們農業產業鏈條的多維的聯系。另外就是農業產業鏈縱向的延伸和打造一體化全產業鏈。第三就是以農業為基礎,推動農村一二三產業的深度融合。而充分挖掘農業的多種功能,推動農業產業鏈條的多維延伸,實現農業產業鏈縱向的延伸,可以讓農民更多分享產業鏈增值的收益。這種分享產業鏈增值的收益也是未來農民增收,實現鄉村振興的一個核心所在。在這點上,特色村莊是一個很好的嘗試。如果把特色村莊的發展分為1.0、2.0、3.0版三個階段,1.0版就是改革開放以后,村里面簡單的產業集聚或者專業化。2.0版就是在過去的產業集聚的基礎上,產業、文化、生態“三位一體”。3.0版是在過去的“三位一體”的基礎上加上信息化、品牌化,可以叫作“五位一體”,即在產業文化生態融合的基礎上,有了信息化、品牌化。特色村莊是未來實現鄉村振興的一個很重要的載體,關鍵是怎么來發揮它們的示范作用,促進更多的鄉村農民增收,富裕起來。(責編/陳賢鳳)
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